What is Neurofeedback Therapy?

Updated: Jul 26, 2021



You're sitting on a sofa facing a screen. You're playing a game. On your head, there's a headset, and an electrode is attached to your scalp. The headset communicates with software on a mobile device programmed to respond to your brain's activity.


From an observer's perspective, you may appear to be simply relaxing and playing video games, but your brain is actually doing hard work. Based on your brain activity, you may be doing well at the game or, alternatively, your player may be struggling.


You’re doing EEG-based neurofeedback, typically referred to as simply neurofeedback, which is a non-invasive methodology that measures your brainwave activity and trains your brain using visual and auditory cues.


But what exactly does this mean? Let's break it down.


Neurofeedback Therapy Explained: Optimizing Your Brain Activity


Neurofeedback is a technique that leverages modern technology and scientific knowledge to train brainwaves. It is one of a broader group of biofeedback therapies relying on the principle that if a person can access information about their bodily functions in real time, they can learn to control them.


Biofeedback can be applied to a variety of bodily processes such as muscle tension, body temperature, or blood pressure, and a variety of conditions, including anxiety, migraines, and chronic pain.


Neurofeedback is a form of biofeedback based on a learning method called operant conditioning, which involves rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence (whether negative or positive).


The goal of neurofeedback is to train the brain to regulate itself and help you understand when your brain is in the desired state. Eventually, your brain may be able to maintain a more balanced state even when it's not receiving feedback.


For example, you may not be aware when your brain is in a focused state or notice when your mind is wandering. During neurofeedback training, visual and/or auditory feedback clue you in on exactly when your mind is wandering in real time, and you learn how to restore your focus to the activity at hand.


Brainwave Harmony


Brainwaves are patterns of electrical activity occurring in the brain. They are related to many crucial aspects of brain function, like thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.


Try to think of them as musical notes: the low-frequency waves are like a deep drum beat, while the higher frequency brainwaves are more like a subtle, high-pitched flute. As a symphony, the higher and lower frequencies link and cohere with each other through harmonics.


Depending on what you're doing at the time, a particular brainwave may be dominant over the others. And if your brainwaves are not balanced properly, you may experience both emotional and neuro-physical health concerns.


For example, if the slower brainwaves are dominant, you may feel tired, sluggish, or dreamy. The higher frequencies are dominant when you feel focused or hyper-alert.


5 Types of Brainwaves


The brainwaves recorded by the EEG are measured in frequency (speed of the waves expressed in hertz: number of waves per second) and in amplitude (height of the waves expressed in microvolts). In general, the amplitude decreases as the frequency increases.


Brainwaves are divided into frequency bands as follows:

  • Delta brainwaves (.5 to 3 Hz). Delta is a very slow, low-frequency brainwave generated in deep meditation and dreamless sleep. It tends to be the highest in amplitude and the slowest wave. Healing and regeneration occur when the brain is in this state. Feeling unrested when you wake up is probably a sign that you didn’t spend enough time in the stage of sleep characterized by delta waves.

  • Theta brainwaves (3 to 8 Hz) are slow waves that relate to dreamy, free-flowing, detached unconscious thought. They are dominant during “autopilot” states, or, in other words, instances of automatic tasks and sometimes in deep meditative states. Theta brainwaves are essential for processing information, and they are our gateway to learning, memory, and intuition.

  • Alpha brainwaves (8 to 12 Hz) are faster than theta but slower and higher in amplitude than beta brainwaves. They are typically dominant during meditative and mindful activities and represent non-arousal. During this state, the brain isn’t trying to solve any problems or process a lot of information. Alpha brainwaves help with mental coordination, calmness, alertness, mind/body integration and learning.

  • Beta brainwaves (12 to 38 Hz) are high-frequency waves of relatively low amplitude. They are amplified when your brain is alert and engaged in cognitive tasks that require a lot of attention and focus. They are dominant during instances of problem-solving, judgment, decision-making, or any other focused mental activity.

Beta brainwaves can be subdivided into three categories:

  1. Lo-Beta (Beta1, 12-15Hz), called “sensorimotor rhythm” or “SMR” when recorded over the middle of the brain (sensorimotor strip), is dominant during meditative states and has been shown to be beneficial in reducing anxiety, increasing focus, and promoting overall well-being.

  2. Beta (Beta2, 15-22Hz) is intense, focused brain activity when we are working on solving a problem or actively engaging with our environment.

  3. Hi-Beta (Beta3, 22-38Hz) may reflect complex thought related to integrating new experiences, high anxiety, or excitement.

  • Gamma brainwaves (38 to 42 Hz) are the fastest (i.e, highest frequency) brainwaves with lowest amplitude. They are involved in combining information from different areas of the brain and are prominent when you’re both alert and highly focused. Gamma waves are dominant at times of very deep focus, like when you’re trying to solve a problem.

Regulating Brainwaves


We cycle in and out of different brainwave states throughout the day and night. Even though all brainwave states are essential, they should be experienced appropriately — when engaged in certain activities, at certain times of day and for particular durations of time.


Neurofeedback teaches your brain to regulate your brainwaves so that you can achieve the desired brainwave state.


For example, alpha waves occur when you are relaxed. Beta waves are associated with alertness, but when maintained for too long, they may lead to fear and anxiety.


So, if you are anxious, learning how to increase alpha waves while reducing beta wave activity might be your goal.


A Brief History Lesson


Neurofeedback was pioneered in the 1960s by two researchers: Dr. Joseph Kamiya at the University of Chicago and Dr. Barry Sterman at UCLA.

Dr. Kamiya found that by using a simple reward system, people could control their brainwaves. He trained people to achieve an alpha state by rewarding them with the sound of a bell. This marked the first time that real-time feedback was provided to humans based on EEG monitoring – the first instance of neurofeedback training.